Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage and supplementary material.
A Life in Traffic
A subway system is expanded to provide service to a growing suburb. A bike-sharing program is adopted to encourage nonmotorized transportation. 1 To alleviate rush hour traffic jams in a congested downtown area, stoplight timing is coordinated. When any one of these changes 2 occur, it is likely the result of careful analysis conducted by transportation planners.
The work of transportation planners generally includes evaluating current transportation needs, assessing the effectiveness of existing facilities, and improving those facilities or 3 they design new ones. Most transportation planners work in or near cities, 4 but some are employed in rural areas. Say, for example, a large factory is built on the outskirts of a small town. Traffic to and from that location would increase at the beginning and end of work shifts. The transportation 5 planner’s job, might involve conducting a traffic count to determine the daily number of vehicles traveling on the road to the new factory. If analysis of the traffic count indicates that there is more traffic than the 6 current road as it is designed at this time can efficiently accommodate, the transportation planner might recommend widening the road to add another lane.
Transportation planners work closely with a number of community stakeholders, such as government officials and other interested organizations and individuals. 7 Next, representatives from the local public health department might provide input in designing a network of trails and sidewalks to encourage people to walk more. 8 According to the American Heart Association, walking provides numerous benefits related to health and well-being. Members of the Chamber of Commerce might share suggestions about designing transportation and parking facilities to support local businesses.
9 People who pursue careers in transportation planning have a wide variety of educational backgrounds. A two-year degree in transportation technology may be sufficient for some entry-level jobs in the field. Most jobs, however, require at least a bachelor’s degree; majors of transportation planners are 10 varied, including fields such as urban studies, civil engineering, geography, or transportation and logistics management. For many positions in the field, a master’s degree is required.
Transportation planners perform critical work within the broader field of urban and regional planning. As of 2010, there were approximately 40,300 urban and regional planners employed in the United States. The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics forecasts steady job growth in this field, 11 projecting that 16 percent of new jobs in all occupations will be related to urban and regional planning. Population growth and concerns about environmental sustainability are expected to spur the need for transportation planning professionals.
Adapted from United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections Program. "All Occpuations" includes all occupations in the United States economy.
Select an Answer
Which choice completes the sentence with accurate data based on the graph?
warning, however, that job growth in urban and regional planning will slow to 14 percent by 2020.
predicting that employment of urban and regional planners will increase 16 percent between 2010 and 2020.
indicating that 14 to 18 percent of urban and regional planning positions will remain unfilled.
Choice C is the best answer because it completes the sentence with an accurate interpretation of data in the graph. The graph displays projections of how much growth in employment there is expected to be between 2010 and 2020 for “social scientists and related workers,”for “urban and regional planners,” and in “all occupations” in the U.S. economy. According to the graph, the employment of urban and regional planners is expected to increase 16 percent between 2010 and 2020.
Choice A is not the best answer because the data in the graph do not support the claim that 16 percent of new jobs in all occupations will be related to urban and regional planning.
Choice B is not the best answer because the data in the graph do not support the claim that job growth in urban and regional planning will slow to 14 percent by 2020.
Choice D is not the best answer because the data in the graph do not support the claim that 14 to 18 percent of urban and regional planning positions will remain unfilled.
Students must evaluate text based on data presented graphically.