When the Portuguese sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and entered the Indian Ocean in the late fifteenth century, they found
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numerous ports under the control of merchants from Genoa.
colonial domination of ports and sea lanes by the navy of the Ottoman Empire.
a region where sea trade had not yet developed.
a region defended and patrolled by fleets of the Chinese navy.
a network of long distance trade routes dominated by Muslim merchants.
Trade was flourishing in the Indian Ocean in the late fifteenth century. Muslim traders had controlled the rich spice trade of the region for centuries, having established a network of long-distance trade routes.