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Question 14 of 30

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M:C:MC:10

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SAT

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Problem Solving and Data Analysis

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A researcher wanted to know if there is an association between exercise and sleep for the population of 16-year-olds in the United States. She obtained survey responses from a random sample of 2000 United States 16-year-olds and found convincing evidence of a positive association between exercise and sleep. Which of the following conclusions is well supported by the data?

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There is a positive association between exercise and sleep for 16-year-olds in the United States.

Correct Answer: 
Yes

There is a positive association between exercise and sleep for 16-year-olds in the world.

Correct Answer: 
No

Using exercise and sleep as defined by the study, an increase in sleep is caused by an increase of exercise for 16-year-olds in the United States.

Correct Answer: 
No

Using exercise and sleep as defined by the study, an increase in sleep is caused by an increase of exercise for 16-year-olds in the world.

Correct Answer: 
No

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Choice A is correct. A relationship in the data can only be generalized to the population that the sample was drawn from.

Choice B is not the correct answer. A relationship in the data can only be generalized to the population that the sample was drawn from. The sample was from high school students in the United States, not from high school students in the entire world.

Choice C is not the correct answer. Evidence for a cause-and-effect relationship can only be established when participants are randomly assigned to groups that receive different treatments.

Choice D is not the correct answer. Evidence for a cause-and-effect relationship can only be established when participants are randomly assigned to groups that receive different treatments. Also, a relationship in the data can only be generalized to the population that the sample was drawn from. The sample was from high school students in the United States, not from high school students in the entire world.

Question Difficulty: 
medium
Objective: 

Students must use information from a research study to evaluate whether the results can be generalized to the study population and whether a cause/effect relationship exists. To conclude a cause and effect relationship like the ones described in (C) and (D), there must be random assignment of participants to groups receiving different treatments. To conclude that the relationship applies to a population, participants must be randomly selected from that population.